Census 1897 was the first and only comprehensive census of the Russian Empire. It cost the state at 7 million. The census results were published in 89 volumes (119 books) under the title “The first general census of the Russian Empire in 1897”
To 1897 in Russia were held local census in individual cities and territories. Only from 1862 to 1917 in the Russian Empire was organized about 200 local census. In some provinces (Pskov – 1870, 1887, Astrakhan – 1873, Akmola – 1877, etc.) copied residents in all cities. In 1863 and 1881 the population of the whole of Courland rewritten in 1881 – Livonia and Estland provinces.
Known population of the Russian kingdom on the year 1710 during the reign of Peter I – about 15 million people.
Census of population in the east of Europe (and the world) was carried out in one form or another throughout the life of the tribes, principalities, kingdoms, Haganates, khanates, empires, states in order to determine the expected revenue collection with subservient territories and peoples.
- Kharkovskaya gubernia
- Chernigovskaya gubernia
- Poltavskaya gubernia
- Kievskaya gubernia
- Podolskaya gubernia
- Volynskaya gubernia
- Ekaterinoslavskaya gubernia
- Khersonskaya gubernia
- Tavricheskaya guberni
Preparing for the Census
The project began to be considered a census since 1874. Circular of the Minister of Internal Affairs on 11 March 1895, in anticipation of the next census was forbidden to perform statistical work associated with the survey population.
June 5, 1895 draft of the Regulations on the census was approved by Emperor Nicholas II and published as “The position of the first national census of the Russian Empire”. The highest approved on the same day the view of the State Council said: “1) the general census of the Empire is to bring fame to its size, composition and local distribution. 2) The general census is required for all residents of the Empire, both sexes, all ages, status, religion and tribe, as Russian citizens and foreigners. <…>
General management of the preparatory work for the census was entrusted to the main census commission. On 5 June 1897 the development of the census department passed Census Central Statistical Committee of the Ministry of Interior.
Regulation of 5 June 1895, the census was to collect 14 attributes of each person living within the country – 1) name, 2) marital status, 3) the relationship to the head of the economy, 4) sex, 5) age, 6) estate or state 7) Religion, 8) place of birth, 9) the place of registration, 10), place of residence, 11) the native language, 12) literacy, 13) class, 14) physical disabilities.
Then more questions have been added to the situation by military service, the question of literacy was divided into two: the “know how to read and where he learned” and the issue of employment has been divided on the “main and side” and the question was put “lack.” Records was conducted in three population categories: cash, permanent (settled) and the attached
Census data is to be developed in the electrical calculating machines, and therefore adopted the questionnaires of list form:
Sheets Form A – the farms of rural communities were filled directly counters;
sheets form B – for the owners’ farms, private homes and home villages, filled by the owners,
In the form of sheets – for urban residents (kvartirohozyaystva), it also used the method of self-enumeration.
In practice, because of the low literacy rate most of the forms filled counters. All participated in the work of up to 150 thousand meters, which was filled with 30 million forms. After data collection, data questionnaires were coded with special symbols, and then transferred to a separate punch card for each person. Punch cards were used directly in the calculation is performed using computing electric cars Gollerita (Hollerith). Overall, the cost of the census was about 6.7 million.
Distribution of the main ethnic groups in the European part of Russia, according to census 1897
According to the concept of the triune Russian people are “Russian general”, and their three components: the Great Russians, the Little Russians, Belarusians.
The census recorded in the Russian Empire 125,640,021 inhabitants, of whom lived in cities 16,828,395 persons (13.4%). Among the cities, there were two city-millionaire and one city with a population of over half a million. The largest city was the capital of St. Petersburg. Of the 5 largest cities in two (third and fifth in size) were located in the Kingdom of Poland.
The literacy rate was 21.1%, while for men it was significantly higher than that of women (29.3% and 13.1%, respectively).
By faith, the largest denomination in descending order, were Orthodox – 69.3%, the Mohammedans (Muslims) – 11.1%, Roman Catholic – 9.1%, and Jews – 4.2%.
In the native language, the largest language groups, in descending order, the Great (Russian) – 44.3%, Little Russians (Ukrainians) – 17.8%, Poles – 6.3%, Belorossy (Belarusians) – 4.3%, Jews – 4.0%.
The largest class, in descending order: the peasantry – 77.5%, tradesmen – 10.7%, non-Russians – 6.6%, the Cossacks – 2.3%, noblemen (hereditary and personal) – 1.5%, and the clergy – 0 , 5%, freemen (hereditary and personal) – 0.3%, merchants – 0.2% Other – 0.4%.